The chickpea plant (Latin: Cicer arietinum) is an annual legume of the family Fabaceae. There are two main types of chickpeas: kabuli and desi. Kabuli chickpeas, such as Garbanzo, are large in size, have a smooth coat, and light beige in colour. Desi chickpeas, such as Bulgarian, are smaller, have a rough coat, and darker than kabuli. Moreover, Kabuli varieties are generally taller and produce less seeds than the desi varieties per plant.
Chickpeas require 80 to 100 days for maturation depending on if the end product required is fresh or dried. Chickpea crops are best suited to well-drained soils that are neutral to alkaline. They produce good yields in drier conditions because of their deep tap root, therefore the soil must have good water holding capacity.
The cultivated chickpea, was one of the first grain legumes to be domesticated. The wildtype chickpea is only found in parts of Turkey and Syria, and so it is likely that it was first domesticated there. Domesticated chickpeas (also called garbanzo beans) come in two main groups called desi and kabuli but you can also find varieties in many colors and several shapes.
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